Harvard South Asia Institute is proud to co-sponsor the biennial American Council for Southern Asian Art Symposium. ACSAA symposia serve as opportunities to meet colleagues, reconnect with mentors and graduate school cohorts, and share one’s current research with the field. From senior scholars to graduate students, ACSAA symposia are one of the primary ways ACSAA members gather and support one another, share ideas with a group of like-minded colleagues, and participate in the ACSAA community. We are looking forward to welcoming you all in Boston/Cambridge, MA!
ACSAA 2017 Organizers
Jinah Kim, Gardner Cowles Associate Professor of History of Art & Architecture Laura Weinstein, Ananda K. Coomaraswamy curator of South Asian and Islamic Art, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston
About the ACSAA
The American Council for Southern Asian Art (ACSAA) is a non-profit organization dedicated to advancing the study and awareness of the art of South and Southeast Asia and the Himalayan regions. In addition to periodic symposia, usually held every two years, ACSAA pursues these goals through various projects, including its annual bulletin, bibliographies, a color slide project, a microfiche archive and outreach materials. Since its incorporation in 1967, ACSAA has grown from its original fifteen members to an organization of some three hundred individuals and institutions. ACSAA is formally affiliated with the College Art Association (CAA) and the Association of Asian Studies (AAS).
Our fantastic arts panel at the 2017 Symposium featured:
Shahzia Sikander: A Pakistani-born visual artist – trained in Pakistan and New England – who challenges the strict formal tropes of miniature painting as well as its medium-based restrictions by experimenting with scale and media. She received a MacArthur “Genius” Grant in 2006.
Shanay Javeri: Assistant Curator of South Asian Art at New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art. He is a graduate of Brown University, where he studied art semiotics and history of art. He completed his doctorate at the Royal College of Art in London, specializing in South Asian art.
Homi Bhabha: Anne F. Rothenberg Professor of English and American Literature and Language, and the Director of the Mahindra Humanities Center at Harvard University.
By Rajna Swaminathan, PhD candidate, Department of Music, Harvard University
In his Mahindra Lecture earlier this month, vocalist T.M. Krishna presented his philosophy on the possibilities for art to break through social habits and boundaries. Drawing on his experience as a person from a privileged background and rising to fame in the Carnatic music scene, Krishna illustrated the ways in which music led him from the personal to the public and political, advocating a spirit of questioning that is uncommon to most classical art forms. Focusing on aesthetics as a site of precipitation for the social, Krishna led those of us who identify as artists to ask: Are we really being creative? Or do we take creativity for granted, conditioning our minds along certain paths, and being very comfortable through all of it?
Krishna recounted his excursions into placing the privileged middle class of Chennai (the central locus of the Karnatik music scene) in dialogue with marginalized art forms, communities, and issues: the Jogappas (a community of transgender performers from Karnataka), Urur Olcott Kuppam (a fishing village in Besant Nagar, Chennai), and the environmental crisis surrounding Ennore Creek. He pointed to the mutual vulnerability that ensued in such encounters, as well as the general state of receptivity that artists must strive for, cutting through comfortable social tendencies.
After his talk, Krishna presented an unusual (and recently composed) Carnatic song in the vernacular Chennai dialect of Tamil — “Poromboke” (a derogatory word that was originally used to refer geographically to the ‘commons’ that became categorized as ‘unprofitable’ land under colonial powers), for which I accompanied on mrudangam. While singing, Krishna took breaks to explain certain words and intentions that were artfully worked into the song. During the ensuing conversation with Professors Homi Bhabha and Vijay Iyer, both honed in on the various textures of vulnerability at play in the cross-community encounters that Krishna had described. Krishna responded by outlining the gradual nature and tenuous micropolitics of having such polarized communities interact. According to him, having the privilege to start such conversations was only the first step, and subsequent encounters allowed for vulnerabilities and privileges to be exchanged in subversive ways.
The conversation ended by pointing toward the role of the “insider-outsider,” and being in a position to secure institutional support, subvert the power structures at play, and catalyze new kinds of dialogue that included marginalized voices. Professor Iyer connected this to a story related to him by jazz legend Muhal Richard Abrams: while traveling in Europe, a circuit that many jazz musicians depended on despite their difference being on display for consumption by predominantly white audiences, there was an unexpected empathy that took hold through the music. Something rung a bell somewhere, for both audience and performers, cutting through the social circumstances. Embracing a shared humanity through sensitively curated interventions, forming unlikely bonds through the collective experience of beauty, and always keeping a receptive mind and creatively questioning one’s context — these were the lessons and the persisting questions that will continue to resonate for everyone who was present.
To preserve and evolve Indian craft skills so they remain an integral part of our cultural fabric.
To provide business acumen support to craft groups to enable sustainable livelihoods for Indian artisans.
Enabling structured, long-term development support to craft groups
Building capacity and capability of craft-based organizations to help them scale
Reviving patronage of crafts through large scale, sustained interventions
Providing market-driven strategies to craft groups
Facilitating design development to enhance functionality of craft products
CRAFT IN FOCUS (Design Innovation Lab)
Name of the craft: Leather Craft of Andhra Pradesh, traditionally known as Tolu Bommalata (Shadow Puppets).
Key distinctive feature: Luminosity of the leather.
Different products that can be made in this crafts form: Traditionally, leather puppets, wall panels and paintings depicting mythology scenes. Popular items at present are lampshades of various designs and decorative items for home use such as clocks and wall hangings.
Time taken to make a product of the craft: Artisans buy the goat skin and prepare the leather themselves. It is a meticulous process of soaking the raw leather in hot water and lime, followed by vigorous scraping, cleaning and drying to get the required translucent sheets. To prepare the leather takes 2-3 days. Designs are then etched on the leather with pencil. Subsequently, the outlines are marked with black ink. Perforations are made with various chisels on the designs, which further enhances the beauty and luminosity of the leather. Bright colours are used to fill up the designs. To create an elaborate wall panel, it can take up to one month depending on the complexity and detailing. Smaller pieces such as small lampshades or puppets can be made in a day.
SAI team at Craftizen Bangalore
ACTIVITIES AND MODEL OF EXECUTION
Craftizen Foundation is a social venture and a not-for-profit, which functions as the business acumen partner for the Indian handicrafts sector. The focus is on enabling sustainable livelihoods for Indian artisans by building capacity of craft groups with market-ready skills and know-how.
Its programs include:
The Patron Program: This is a structured Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiative that enable craft-based livelihoods for marginalized groups. Corporate funding is channelized to crafts groups and artisans. Craftizen is currently implementing projects in Bengaluru, Kolkata, Delhi and Varanasi impacting 600 beneficiaries including people with disabilities and women rescued from a life of trafficking.
Kalashala: A finishing school for artisans and craft groups to equip them to be market-ready. Craftizen’s biggest challenge was developing a curriculum for artisans, most of whom have not even completed primary school. An interactive, game based approach to learning was adopted, through which artisans are taught business skills, production planning, quality and delivery, sales and marketing, story-telling and design thinking, which is customised to their craft and context. Each concept is first learnt by doing an activity, then by experience sharing and finally with the help of guidelines and pointers that are reinforced with visual material to reinforce learning. This initiative is supported with a social innovation grant from Harvard University’s South Asia Institute and Tata Trusts.
Design Innovation Lab: Traditionally, handicraft designs evolved through the interaction of artisans and customers. With rapid urbanisation, there is an increasing socio-cultural disconnect between them. Crafts produced today often do not have relevance and functionality for the current-day consumer. Through the Design lnnovation Lab, Craftizen aims to bring together artisans and designers to collaborate on market-driven design development. Further, the focus is on benefiting handicrafts that have not evolved adequately with changing trends and market preferences. To pilot the design lab Craftizen chose the Anantapur leather craft from Andhra Pradesh, traditionally known as Tolu Bommalata (Shadow Puppets). This initiative is supported with a social innovation grant from Harvard University’s South Asia Institute and Tata Trusts.
Customized Handcrafted Merchandise: Craftizen provides design and marketing support to crafts persons by focusing on design development that enhances the functional utility of craft products. Products are made for customized orders from corporates and individual buyers. Availability of working capital as well as fair pricing to artisans is ensured.
INNOVATION AND UNIQUE PROCESSES
Craftizen’s collaborative model is unique. It partners with several not-for-profits and social enterprises that are working in the crafts sector to collectively maximise reach and impact. The organization brings a market-centric approach to the crafts sector through research, trend analysis, strategic planning and inputs. This ensures long-term sustainability. It’s presence across the entire value chain helps in tackling multiple challenges and results in long-term solutions as well.
Partnership with several NGOs / craft-based organizations to implement CSR funded projects. Some of the CSR funded projects include Women’s Interlink Foundation in Kolkata, Kriti Social Initiatives and Centre for Social Services in Hyderabad, Seva in Action, NIMHANS and Vidyaranya in Bangalore.
Various artisan groups for design and marketing. Some of the groups include Varanasi wooden toys, Cherial craft group in Telangana, Tollu bommalu in Andhra Pradesh, Applique work in Orissa and Bastar tribal crafts of wrought iron and dhokra.
Large corporate donors like Accenture India and Deloitte India who support and fund livelihood initiatives.
Diverse set of corporate, academic and institutional clients like India School of Business (ISB), Titan Company Limited, Quest Alliance amongst many others for custom merchandise.
Government institutions who have been donors, patrons and clients. They include National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (NABARD) and Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (HPCL) amongst many others.
Tollu Bomalata artisan from Andhra Pradesh
IMPACT ON BENEFICIARIES
Till date Craftizen has impacted over 1000 beneficiaries from marginalized groups through CSR funded and craft-based livelihood programs. It has also worked with close to 200 traditional artisans and 42 non-profits and crafts groups to provide ongoing design and marketing support through orders and events. The organization has also developed close to 58 new Crafts designs and raised grants of over INR 14 million.
“We play the role of craft architects, building bridges that connect the crafts sector to newer possibilities.”
Freeset Fabrics’ goal is livelihood creation in poor rural communities of Murshidabad, West Bengal for vulnerable women who would otherwise be at risk of trafficking into prostitution, bonded labour or migration. Their goal is excellence and quality as they compete with other commercial enterprises.
CRAFT IN FOCUS
Name of the craft: Handloom weaving
Key distinctive feature: The look and feel of handloom fabric has a unique beauty and quality that sets it apart from fabrics that are created on powerlooms.
Different products that can be made in this crafts form: An endless range of products can be created from handloom fabric direct from the loom with minimal finishing: scarves/ stoles, home accessories including table runners, throws and rugs. Other processes, including embroidery and hand printing techniques add value.
Time taken to make a product of the craft: Depending on the competency of the weaver and the complexity of design, for a typical scarf of 2m length and 65cm width, an average of 3 and 4 units can be woven in a day.
Other crafts activities that are ancillary to this craft form: Freeset Fabrics is focused on the handloom processes and finishing techniques. Other forms of embellishment are likely to be introduced in the future to add value and provide work for more women. These may include embroidery, beadwork, block printing, screen printing, specialist dyeing, including natural and azo-free dyes and other specialist techniques such as Shibori.
ACTIVITIES AND MODEL OF EXECUTION
Freeset Fabrics has a unique focus of reaching out to women who are under the threat of trafficking in Murshidabad district, often considered as the capital of trafficking in the state of West Bengal. In the villages surrounding Sherpur
Janet Rogers at the Harvard SAI workshop
where Freeset Fabrics is based, agriculture is the main source of family income. Irregular income and poverty are known drivers for trafficking and migration. Freeset Fabrics provides an opportunity for training and employment to such women from poor agricultural communities in the villages surrounding Sherpur, within a 12 kilometre radius. The enterprise is established on Freeset’s model which provides employment to women who have been trafficked and wish to return to their village, or to those who are vulnerable or at risk of trafficking.
Handloom weaving using natural fibres (currently cotton and wool) and creating scarves and fabric for export is the livelihood creation activity at Freeset. Training in all processes connected with handloom weaving is given over a six to twelve-month period. Once training is complete and a trainee has graduated, she receives a productivity bonus in addition to a basic wage. A direct impact has been noted on women’s wellbeing and confidence as well as a growing sense of community through training and working together. Freeset Fabrics also contributes to Government pension (Provident Fund) and ESI health scheme for its artisans.
For the first two years after Freeset Fabrics was incorporated, its focus was on training women in the skills required for weaving, including preparation of yarn, logistics, management and finishing. Having started with a group of seven women, the company has grown steadily. By the end of the second year, 42 trainees and employees had joined the team, with a waiting list of close to 600 women. In addition to learning handloom skills, training is also given in other areas, including numeracy, literacy, basic health care, life-skills and advocacy.
Income from export sales and sales to visitors
The scarfs for international customers
Start-up funding from New Zealand’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade to cover training, wages and running costs
Harvard SAI and Tata Trusts Social Innovation grant for ergonomic and technical innovation
CHALLENGES AND SOLUTIONS
The equipment initially procured for weaving came from established manufacturers within West Bengal, but was found to be basic in design and difficult to operate. The quality of products and efficiency of its use, proved to be a significant constraint on production of export quality products, so work started on improving the design of the equipment. A contributing factor to this concern was also the ergonomics and the risk of long-term repetitive strain of operating various equipment needed for all the processes on the operatives.
Freeset Fabrics has paid a lot of attention to the design of the looms and the way they are operated. It has engaged ergonomics specialists and consultants to study the effect of existing loom designs on the health of the weavers and efficiency of their work. Minor and major improvements to the existing loom design have made a remarkable difference to the comfort of weavers and efficiency of operations.
From an ergonomic perspective, changes and innovations to other parts of the looms, including a faisel crankshaft mechanism, a faisel handle, improved seating and pedals/shaft operation enhanced the comfort and efficiency of weaving and would lead to less stress on weavers’ bodies.
Freeset Fabrics works with various organizations:
Freeset Business Incubator Pvt Ltd., to develop further business opportunities.
Tamar, a project of Freeset Trust, delivering life skills training, counselling and other social support.
Justice Ventures International, to bring justice and freedom from oppression to the poor.
IMPACT ON BENEFICIARIES
200 people have been impacted through livelihood creation – based on an average of 5 in each family Freeset Fabrics works with. Freeset plans to reach out to over 1000 people over the next 5 years. People working with Freeset have directly benefited through this opportunity with improved income, nutrition and health, as well as self-confidence and self-esteem. The fact that in September 2016, around 500 women wanted to be considered for recruitment (250 in February 2016) indicated the desire and need for more such opportunities for social and economic benefits.
“The Social Innovation Grant from Harvard SAI and Tata Trusts has enabled Freeset Fabrics to improve and strengthen its equipment and processes, increasing quality and efficiency. We are thankful that, with these ergonomic and technical innovations, more women now have the potential to weave more freedom for themselves, their families and their communities.”
In March 2017, we welcomed our Spring semester Visiting Artists: Madhu Das (Mumbai, India) and Rabindra Shrestha (Kathmandu, Nepal). Both work in visual media; they displayed their work on campus, met with students, attended classes and gave public seminars from March 20-31. Applications are open until Monday, August 15, 2017 for the Fall program.
Madhu and Rabindra offered these reflections on their time at Harvard:
I was able to Interact with people from different parts of the world and see how they responded to my work. This will help me to look at my work from a different perspective. I can now get a sense of India as an outsider as well as an insider. I haven’t been outside my home country and the unfamiliar landscape, weather and culture opened my mind.
I can’t fully express the power of the days I have spent here. People back home will be curious to see what I will do with this new exposure; it has given me fresh energy. Artists must come here with an empty mind; it’s almost like a holy place, where you have to absorb as much as you can.
By Meghan Smith, Communications and Outreach Coordinator, SAI
Sometimes, to shatter the glass ceiling, you need a weapon.
Rachel Parikh has plenty at her fingertips – and she wants to use them to break more than a few glass ceilings. As the Calderwood Curatorial Fellow in South Asian Art atHarvard Art Museums, she focuses her work on manuscripts, arms, and armor – yes, weapons.
She admits that even she had her own misconceptions about studying weapons.
“You often associate arms and armor with war, violence, and masculinity,” Parikh says. “I made my own PhD dissertation all about breaking misconceptions about Islamic art and South Asian art, so it was funny that I fell into this misconception about arms and armor.”
Parikh’s dissertation at the University of Cambridge focused on a seventeenth century Deccan Indian copy of a sixteenth century Persian manuscript called the Falnama (‘Book of Omens’). After completing her Ph.D. Parikh was a Postdoctoral Fellow at New York’s Metropolitan Museum of Art, where she researched and cataloged objects for the museum’sDepartment of Arms and Armor.
Professor Jinah Kim (History of Art & Architecture) is looking for a Research Assistant to help her with various research projects, which includes an exhibition on Nepalese Buddhist art, a visual database project, a bibliographic project on the history of Indian painting, and a symposium on South and Southeast Asian Art. Familiarity with one or more Indic languages (especially Sanskrit) is desirable but not required.
An ideal candidate would have strong organizational and management skills. Web design/ site management experience would be a plus. Hours are flexible, but the job will demand at least 4-5 hours per week with an option of being a 20hours/week position. Salary range: between $14.50-18.50/hr. Job Duration: Spring 2017. Open to both graduate and undergraduate.
If interested, please email Jinah Kim, firstname.lastname@example.org.
A first major loan exhibition of Indian art in Beijing, China is currently held in the majestic Meridian gate tower of the Palace Museum (September 28, 2016- January 3 2017) of the Forbidden City (see a virtual tour of the exhibition here.) “Across the Silk Road: Gupta Sculptures and their Chinese Counterparts during 400 to 700CE” is an ambitious exhibition conceived by the senior curatorial fellow of the Palace Museum, Dr. Lou Wenhua, after his visit to India over 3 years ago. Fifty-six sculptures from nine Indian Museums are on display against a red backdrop in one gallery, while two adjacent galleries are filled with over one hundred Chinese Buddhist sculptures against blue backdrop. Bringing this exhibition together is an impressive feat by the organizers in Beijing, which, of course, was not possible without collaborative efforts from many museum personnel and officers in India.
When the China-India bilateral relationship is not as rosy and warm as anticipated (i.e. India’s failed entry into the NSG at the Seoul plenary, CPEC [China Pakistan Economic Corridor] developments—part of President Xie Jinping’s Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Maritime Silk Road projects), the exhibition reminds us of the age old connections between the two countries, notably activated and solidified through the transmission of Buddhism. It also opens up new possibilities of trans-regional connections for the future that may benefit tremendously from mutual understanding of each other’s culture and history.